Logic WHFKI1Logika
Factual content:
The subject matter of the course:
I Introduction: General nature of logic as a science. Formal logic.
II Syntactic, semantic and pragmatic character of a language: Language and its functions. Syntactic rules of a language. Syntactic cohesion. Expressions and their meaning. Syntactic categories of expressions.
III Name as a syntactic category: Name and its meaning. Designatum of the name, the scope and types of the name. Semantic relations. Equivalence and ambiguity of names. Ways of using names. Sharp and vague names, clear and unclear names. Relations between the scopes of names.
IV More important mistakes in expressing thoughts verbally: Expression ambiguity error. Equivocation. Amphibology. Error resulting from using the names of unclear meaning. Implicit statement error.
V Logical sentence as a syntactic category: Sentence and proposition. Logical value of a sentence. Logical truth. Analytic and synthetic sentences. Simple sentences. Compound sentences.
VI Elements of the theory of definition: The issue of a definition. Nominal and real definitions. Nominal definitions. The structure of a definition. Basic types of definitions. Conditions of word definition correctness. Errors in defining. Real definitions.
VII Logical division
VIII Sentential calculus: Introduction. Logical relations among sentences. The relation of the logical contradiction of sentences. The contradiction principle and the law of excluded middle (tertium non datur). The relation of logical equivalence of sentences. The relation of logical entailment of sentences. A conditional. Interferential entailment. Basic principles of the logic of sentence resulting from a logic entailment relation. The laws which result from the relation of mutual exclusion and complementing alternative and disjunctive sentences. Laws (tautologies) of the propositional calculus. A binary method. Axiomatic form of the propositional calculus. Selected laws of the propositional calculus.
IX Traditional formal logic. Name calculus: Forms of direct inference. Classic categorical sentences. The Aristotle’s square. The Aristotle’s square laws – logical relations between classic categorical sentences. Conversion of categorical sentences. Obversion of categorical sentences. Forms of indirect inference. Sylogistics. The notion and basic forms of syllogism. Conditions of syllogistic scheme correctness. Checking the schemes using the Venn diagrams. Imperfect syllogisms.
X Elements of the quantification logic: Symbolism and basic schemes of the quantification logic. Basic tautologies of the quantification logic.
XI The rudiments of the set theory and the relations theory: Basic notions and symbolism of the set theory. Relations between sets. Operations performed on sets. The laws of the set calculus. Boolean algebra of sets – axiomatic system of the set calculus. The division of sets. The rudiments of the relation theory. Basic notions of the relation theory. Types of relations.
XII Inference and conditions of its correctness: The notion of inference. Recognising and substantiating a theorem. The principle of a sufficient reason. Logical inference. Conditions of logical inference correctness. Deductive inference. Prima facie inference. Reduction inference. Inductive inference. Inductive research process. The notion of inductive inference. Mathematical induction. Inference by incomplete enumeration. Inference through complete enumeration. Inference by analogy. Statistical inference. Eliminative induction. Mill’s canons. Errors in reasoning.
XIV Convincing as a particular form of inference: Reliable and unreliable methods of arguing and having a dispute.
(in Polish) ELearning
(in Polish) Grupa przedmiotów ogólnouczenianych
(in Polish) Opis nakładu pracy studenta w ECTS
Subject level
Learning outcome code/codes
Type of subject
Course coordinators
Term 2020/21_Z:  Term 2019/20_Z:  Term 2018/19_Z:  Term 2022/23_Z:  Term 2021/22_Z: 
Learning outcomes
The aim of a basic course of logic is the development and growth of student’s natural rationality, showing them natural rules and patterns of human thinking and present the fundamental knowledge of formal logic and methodology. The effect of logic course should be the development of student’s logical thinking skill, which is thinking with accordance to logical implication; and also the knowledge of how to assess their own opinions and the opinions of others, while using them to create a theory on their logical correctness; the skill of forming precise thoughts and critical analysis of concepts and sentences; effective argumentation and discussing with rules of correct reasoning.
Logic course conveys also the knowledge about mistakes and dangers of human thinking, which may appear because of cultural superstitions or prejudice and also other deliberate action like different forms of indoctrination (political, religious or any other). Student should also be able to use knowledge of logic in his/her practical life to assess and address social, ethical and religious issues. Above all the student should be able to distinguish consequences resulting from apparent and real truths (including the skill to distinguish positive elements of cultural tradition from cultural superstition and myths); being able to distinguish what is permanent and unchangeable (for example human dignity and one’s value as a person and as a creator of political, social, economic, religious and any other culture) from what is a part of variable cultural tradition, of which he is the creator. At the same time he will be respectful to culture as a whole, and will try see and free what is noble and what can develop himself. Student should also be able to use rules of logical thinking in his professional life in a natural way; should be able to see and assess important, related, and apparent issues.
Assessment criteria
Marks are based: on the engagement presented by the student, on how well prepared for the class he/she is, on the attendance and on the practical use of the knowledge of methodology and logic acquitted during the classes. Logical thinking, while using the rules acquired during the classes, is a huge asset.
For the satisfactory mark student should present his knowledge of solving basic tasks and logical problems. For the good and very good mark student should be able to solve more difficult task and problems, which require a deeper knowledge of methodology and logic, in range/scope of the material acquired during the classes. Final mark also takes into account the diligence and engagement presented by the student during the classes and also task done by the student at home.
Marks are given based on written exams, oral answers, homework and student’s general involvement into the classes.
Written exams will verify student’s skills and knowledge accordingly, on a basic level (marks up to satisfactory plus) and more advanced level (marks up to good plus). Student who attended and who were careful during classes shouldn’t have problems solving problems at a basic level. More advanced tasks require from student to be more active during the classes.
Mark very good is given to those students who solved the problems at a more advanced level and who can explain the tasks using the knowledge of rules and laws, which they acquired during the classes. They also should show they involvement into the class and they knowledge of the material.
The lecturer can, but does not have to, increase the final grade (most often by one grade), even to a very good mark, based on the engagement and involvement of the student into the class, even if the mark directly result from written exams.
Bibliography
Literatura podstawowa:
Kazimierz Pawłowski, Podstawy logiki ogólnej, Warszawa 2016.
Zygmunt Ziembiński, Logika praktyczna, Warszawa 2007.
Barbara Stanosz, Wprowadzenie do logiki formalnej. Podręcznik dla humanistów, Warszawa 1998 (lub inne wydanie).
Term 2019/20_Z:
Kazimierz Pawłowski, Podstawy logiki ogólnej, Warszawa 2016. 
Term 2020/21_Z:
Kazimierz Pawłowski, Podstawy logiki ogólnej, Warszawa 2016. 
Term 2021/22_Z:
Kazimierz Pawłowski, Podstawy logiki ogólnej, Warszawa 2016. 
Term 2022/23_Z:

Notes
Term 2019/20_Z:
None 
Term 2020/21_Z:
None 
Additional information
Information on level of this course, year of study and semester when the course unit is delivered, types and amount of class hours  can be found in course structure diagrams of apropriate study programmes. This course is related to the following study programmes:
Additional information (registration calendar, class conductors, localization and schedules of classes), might be available in the USOSweb system: